Electronics Assembly Knowledge, Vision & Wisdom
Test Methods for Electrochemical Consistency in PCB Assembly Processes
Test Methods for Electrochemical Consistency in PCB Assembly Processes
This paper will review traditional and emerging methods to characterize flux residues and cleanliness of finished assemblies.
Analysis Lab

Analysis Lab programs cover topics including:
Corrosion, Contamination, Data Acquisition, ESD and EOS, Inspection, Measurement, Profiling, Reliability, R&D, RFID, Solder Defects, Test, Tombstoning, X-ray and more.
Submit A Comment
Comments are reviewed prior to posting. You must include your full name to have your comments posted. We will not post your email address.

Your Name

Your Company

Your E-mail

Your Country

Your Comment

Authored By:
Brook Sandy-Smith
Indium Corporation

There are several industry-accepted methods to determine the electrochemical reliability of electronic assemblies. These methods are typically designed to either simulate humid environments in accelerated lifetime testing, or assess the species of ionic residues present on surfaces. Some can be used to test prototypes or test boards, while some are more applicable for quality and consistency testing in a production environment. The increasing complexity of high-density assemblies, along with low standoff components, imposes greater associated challenges related to assessing electrochemical reliability. This has led to the development and adoption of new methods for testing ionic residues that can lead to electrochemical migration.

This paper will review traditional and emerging methods to characterize flux residues and cleanliness of finished assemblies, including surface insulation resistance, electrochemical migration, ROSE extraction, and other emerging test methods. Data will be shared to reveal how different methods can detect process variations in different ways, and compare the results.

With new revisions to IPC J-standard-001 and proposed changes to Section 8, the philosophy for ensuring assemblies are clean after a cleaning process has evolved. The way we look at the consistency of no-clean process residues for process control may also be evolving.

Process qualification is critical to ensure a reliable end product. Since the testing includes SIR on a test board with components, along with process control methods and IC to characterize any suspicious ionic species, it is an efficient way to tie reliability testing to an everyday process control plan. The inclusion of all material selections including solder mask, surface finish, and solder materials, along with processing aligned with a true production environment yields results that mimic true assemblies as closely as possible.

In order to be successful in characterizing a new process and design, the test method details are critical. Board fabrication, test coupon preparation, solder application, and reflow profiling are all critical to achieving accurate results.

Although the experiment discussed in this paper did not yield passing results, meaningful lessons can be taken away. Ongoing testing will be conducted with a high level of attention to detail to procedures and incoming board inspections. Most importantly, additional work will be done to identify board materials that will standardize the test, enabling use for future solder material performance comparisons and process window characterization.

Initially Published in the SMTA Proceedings

No comments have been submitted to date.
Free Newsletter Subscription
Every issue of the Circuit Insight email newsletter will bring you the latest information on the issues affecting you and your company.

Insert Your Email Address

Directory Search

Program Search
Related Programs
bullet Immersion Gold Processes Used for Both ENIG and ENEPIG
bullet Achieving Solder Reliability for LGA Ceramic Image Sensors
bullet Hand Soldering Reliability
bullet Test Methods for Electrochemical Consistency in PCB Assembly Processes
bullet Opens With Assembled QFN Components
bullet Evaluation of Stencil Technology for Miniaturization
bullet Solderability Testing Protocols and Component Re-Tinning Methods
bullet Soldering Immersion Tin
bullet Warpage of Flexible-Board Assemblies with BGAs During Reflow and Post-Assembly
bullet Copper-Tin Intermetallics: Their Importance, Growth Rate and Nature
More Related Programs