Electronics Assembly Knowledge, Vision & Wisdom
TDI Imaging: An Efficient AOI and AXI Tool
TDI Imaging: An Efficient AOI and AXI Tool
Time delay integration cameras allow for the efficient inspection of the printed pattern, wire bonding, quality of soldering of a PCB structure and circuit assembly.
Analysis Lab

Authored By:
Yakov Bulayev
Hamamatsu Corporation
Bridgewater, NJ USA
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Transcript
As a result of heightened requirements for quality, integrity and reliability of electronic products, the role of wafer auditing and nondestructive testing of printed circuit boards and electronic assemblies has grown at an unprecedented rate.

Nondestructive testing improves a product's performance, increases quality and reliability, and lowers return rate. It is estimated that the cost of a failure decreases by a factor of ten when the error is identified in the course of production instead of in the field.

Optical and x-ray cameras have become the most efficient and reliable tools for nondestructive testing. Time delay integration method of imaging is based on the concept of accumulation of multiple exposures of the same object.

The primary advantage of this method compared to the conventional line-scan method is the possibility of detecting low exposure levels with a superior signal-to-noise ratio when high spatial resolution is required.

In the semiconductor industry, Time delay integration based instruments are used for wafer and reticle inspections where ultraviolet and deep ultraviolet instruments are mandated by defect detection requirements.

In the electronics industry, time delay integration based instruments can be efficiently used for high-speed automated optical inspection of high-density electronic assemblies where dimensions of components populated on the PCB become smaller, and spacing between the components becomes narrower.

X-ray Time delay integration cameras are a critical part of the automated x-ray inspection systems used for inspection of multilayer printed circuit boards and circuit card assemblies with BGA and other SMT components.

This paper explains how time delay integration cameras allow for the efficient inspection of the printed pattern, wire bonding, quality of soldering of BGA components, and other elements of a PCB structure and circuit assembly.
Summary
As a result of heightened requirements for quality, integrity and reliability of electronic products, the role of wafer auditing and nondestructive testing of printed circuit boards and electronic assemblies has grown at an unprecedented rate. Nondestructive testing improves a product's performance, increases quality and reliability, and lowers return rate. It is estimated that the cost of a failure decreases by a factor of ten when the error is identified in the course of production instead of in the field. Optical and x-ray cameras have become the most efficient and reliable tools for nondestructive testing.

Time delay integration (TDI) method of imaging is based on the concept of accumulation of multiple exposures of the same object. The primary advantage of this method compared to the conventional line-scan method is the possibility of detecting low exposure levels with a superior signal-to-noise ratio when high spatial resolution is required. In the semiconductor industry, TDI-based instruments are used for wafer and reticle inspections where ultraviolet (UV) and deep ultraviolet (DUV) instruments are mandated by defect detection requirements. In the electronics industry, TDI-based instruments can be efficiently used for high-speed automated optical inspection (AOI) of high-density electronic assemblies where dimensions of components populated on the PCB (printed circuit board) become smaller, and spacing between the components becomes narrower.

X-ray TDI cameras are a critical part of the automated x-ray inspection (AXI) systems used for inspection of multilayer
printed circuit boards and circuit card assemblies with BGA (ball grid array) and other SMT (surface-mount technology)
components. High-resolution x-ray TDI cameras allow efficient inspection of the printed pattern, wire bonding, quality of soldering of BGA components, and other elements of a PCB structure and circuit assembly.
Initially Published in the IPC Proceedings
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